Is Anyone Responsible
A disturbingly cautionary tale, Is Anyone Responsible? anchors with powerful evidence suspicions about the way in which television has impoverished political discourse in the United States and at the same time molds American political consciousness. It is essential reading for media critics, psychologists, political analysts, and all the citizens who want to be sure that their political opinions are their own. "Not only does it provide convincing evidence for particular effects of media fragmentation, but it also explores some of the specific mechanisms by which television works its damage. . . . Here is powerful additional evidence for those of us who like to flay television for its contributions to the trivialization of public discourse and the erosion of democratic accountability."—William A. Gamson, Contemporary Sociology "Iyengar's book has substantial merit. . . . [His] experimental methods offer a precision of measurement that media effects research seldom attains. I believe, moreover, that Iyengar's notion of framing effects is one of the truly important theoretical concepts to appear in recent years."—Thomas E. Patterson, American Political Science Review
Doing Global Science
This concise introductory guide explains the values that should inform the responsible conduct of scientific research in today's global setting. Featuring accessible discussions and ample real-world scenarios, Doing Global Science covers proper conduct, fraud and bias, the researcher's responsibilities to society, communication with the public, and much more. The book places special emphasis on the international and highly networked environment in which modern research is done, presenting science as an enterprise that is being transformed by globalization, interdisciplinary research projects, team science, and information technologies. Accessibly written by an InterAcademy Partnership committee comprised of leading scientists from around the world, Doing Global Science is required reading for students, practitioners, and anyone concerned about the responsible conduct of science today. Provides practical guidance and instructions for doing scientific research in today's global setting Covers everything from responsible conduct to communication with the public Features numerous real-world scenarios drawn from an array of disciplines and national contexts Focuses on issues commonly encountered in international collaborations Written by a panel of leading experts from around the world An essential guide for practicing scientists and anyone concerned about fostering research integrity
Shooting to Kill
The present book brings together perspectives from different disciplinary fields to examine the significant legal, moral and political issues which arise in relation to the use of lethal force in both domestic and international law. These issues have particular salience in the counter terrorism context following 9/11 (which brought with it the spectre of shooting down hijacked airplanes) and the use of force in Operation Kratos that led to the tragic shooting of Jean Charles de Menezes. Concerns about the use of excessive force, however, are not confined to the terrorist situation. The essays in this collection examine how the state sanctions the use of lethal force in varied ways: through the doctrines of public and private self-defence and the development of legislation and case law that excuses or justifies the use of lethal force in the course of executing an arrest, preventing crime or disorder or protecting private property. An important theme is how the domestic and international legal orders intersect and continually influence one another. While legal approaches to the use of lethal force share common features, the context within which force is deployed varies greatly. Key issues explored in this volume are the extent to which domestic and international law authorise pre-emptive use of force, and how necessity and reasonableness are legally constructed in this context.
The Institutionalization of Torture by the Bush Administration
The United States of America has historically been regarded as a moral leader opening the pathway for human rights. The country which has long struggled for the establishment of the rule of law ù as well as to a model for the other nations in observing it ù has, since 11 September 2001 committed abhorrent practices of torture against which it has fought when committed by others. What seems astonishing is that such practices took place in the U.S. within a climate of significant public indifference and even with some public support. The Bush administration assumed neither moral nor legal responsibility, and in the end, it is hard-put to show what positive results may have been obtained for so many transgressions. In addition, the proposition that torture prevents terrorism cannot be proven true. The Guantßnamo Bay practices and the unlawful seizure of persons in different parts of the world by the CIA after which they are transferred to countries where they are tortured, have proven that reliable evidence is highly unlikely to be attained under torture. Guantßnamo represents a failed policy that has done much damage to the moral authority of the United States. Aberrant views of torture as necessary because "the ends justify the means" have not generated much negative reaction from the legal profession, despite the fact that the 1984 Convention against Torture, the Geneva Conventions, the U.S. Constitution, and the laws of the United States have clearly prohibited such practices. Are the events of September 11, 2001 enough to have us reopen the question of whether the medieval practice of torture should be allowed? The answer to these questions has to be a resounding and unqualified no. The U.S. must, therefore, take quick and confident action to make amends and to hold responsible those who promoted a policy of torture.
The Attribution of Blame
How can we identify the causes of events? What does it mean to assert that someone is responsible for a moral affront? Under what circumstances should we blame others for wrongdoing? The related, but conceptually distinct, issues of causality, responsibility, and blameworthiness that are the subject of this book play a critical role in our everyday social encounters. As very young children we learn to assert that "it wasn't my fault," or that "I didn't mean to do it." Responsibility and blame follow us into adulthood, as personal or organizational failings require explanation. Although judgments of moral accountability are quickly made and adamantly defended, the process leading to those judgments is not as simple as it might seem. Psychological research on causality and responsibility has not taken complete advantage of a long tradition of philosophical analysis of these concepts. Philosophical discussions, for their part, have not been sufficiently I1ware of the psychological realities. An assignment of blame is a social explanation. It is the outcome of a process that begins with an event having negative consequences, involves judgments about causality, personal responsibility, and possible mitigation. The result can be an assertion, or a denial, of individual blameworthiness. The purpose of this book is to develop a comprehensive theory of how people assign blame.
The Streets Were Paved with Gold
How - and why - did one of the world's greatest cities come to be teetering on the edge of bankruptcy? Ken Auletta, writer for THE NEW YORKER and columnist for THE DAILY NEWS, shows how the decline of New York City was partly inevitable --- the result of shifting migration patterns and rapidl technological innovations --- and partly caused by anarchic political and economic factions, each angling for its own advantage. His lucid examination also pinpoints the core of New York City's problems --- the failure of liberal democratic government --- and explores what this will mean for the future of all American cities. "A tremendously impressive combination of reporting and analysis that illuminates not only New York's situation, but also the most basic trends in the politics and economy of the nation as a whole" - James Fallows, Washington Editor, THE ATLANTIC MONTHLY "Absolute must reading for anyone concerned with New York and the urban future." - George Sternlieb, Director, Centor for Urban Policy Researcch, Rutgers University
Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect
This book provides an in-depth introduction to, and analysis of, the issues relating to the implementation of the recent Responsibility to Protect principle in international relations The Responsibility to Protect (RtoP) has come a long way in a short space of time. It was endorsed by the General Assembly of the UN in 2005, and unanimously reaffirmed by the Security Council in 2006 (Resolution 1674) and 2009 (Resolution 1894). UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon has identified the challenge of implementing RtoP as one of the cornerstones of his Secretary-Generalship. The principle has also become part of the working language of international engagement with humanitarian crises and has been debated in relation to almost every recent international crisis – including Sudan, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Georgia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Darfur and Somalia. Concentrating mainly on implementation challenges including the prevention of genocide and mass atrocities, strengthening the UN’s capacity to respond, and the role of regional organizations, this book introducing readers to contemporary debates on R2P and provides the first book-length analysis of the implementation agenda. The book will be of great interest to students of the responsibility to protect, humanitarian intervention, human rights, foreign policy, security studies and IR and politics in general.
Action An Analysis of the Concept
During the past decade, there has been considerable interest among philosophers in providing a philosophically satisfactory and helpful ana lysis of a particular type of human behavior called action. As I see it, this interest is a renewal of the efforts of Aristotle, in Ethica Nicomachea, to provide an analysis of voluntary action. Because of this, and because Aristotle's distinctions regarding voluntriety are fundamentally correct, what follows is in some ways a discussion in praise of Aristotle. But I have also argued for an analysis of action which will go some way toward withstanding criticism which can be brought against Aristotle's work as well as criticism which can be brought against the more con temporary efforts of others in the same subject. In Chapter Two, I argue for four conditions which are, when met, jointly necessary and sufficient for a particular item of human behavior on a particular occasion to qualify as a human action. The analysis does not allow us to determine that a particular kind of behavior, such as killing, is always an action.
Uncertainty Is a Certainty
The certainty of uncertainty is as true for managing investments as it is for potty-training toddlers; if you are not careful you could end up with a real mess! This is especially true for anyone responsible, even indirectly, for money belonging to a relative, friend, trust, charity, pension or other entity. Being a fiduciary is a very serious legal obligation but this book makes learning how to be one actually fun! If you ever need to serve as or hire a trustee, executor, or investment advisor for your own money or that of family or friends, you must understand what "fiduciary responsibility" means. Guerdon Ely's book is the fastest, most boredom-free, way to gain that understanding. Natalie B. Choate, Esq., Author, Life and Death Planning for Retirement Benefits An exceptionally entertaining book that uses a unique story telling format to define fiduciaries and explain their duties in terms that are easily understood. Guerdon's simple and concise summarization of the elements of "prudence" alone makes this book worth reading. David O'Leary, Esq., Senior Counsel, Holland & Knight LLP This book is brilliant! Fiduciary responsibility can be very dry reading but the author's use of autobiographical tales makes it an extremely enjoyable process. June Hunt, Retired CFO Superbly written, Ely brings the objective standards of modern prudent fiduciary investing to life. A must read for anyone entrusted with the duties of a fiduciary. Katherine Simmonds, Director of Financial Planning Ely brings a common sense approach to fiduciary investing. I find myself reading his stories to friends and colleagues, not only for the content but also for the humor! CPAs and attorneys must recommend this book to all their clients who are fiduciaries. Glenn Freed, PhD, Vice President, A Major Investment Management Firm Former Accounting Professor, University of Southern California