Philosophy of Justice
This book presents surveys of significant trends in contemporary philosophy. Contributing authors explore themes relating to justice including natural rights, equality, freedom, democracy, morality and cultural traditions. Key movements and thinkers are considered, ranging from ancient Greek philosophy, Roman and Christian traditions to the development of Muslim law, Enlightenment perspectives and beyond. Authors discuss important works, including those of Aristotle, Ibn Khaldun, John Locke, Immanuel Kant and Mary Wollstonecraft. Readers are also invited to examine Hegel and the foundation of right, Karl Marx as a utopian socialist and the works of Paul Ricœur, amongst the wealth of perspectives presented in this book. Through these chapters, readers are able to explore the relationship of the state to justice and consider the rights of the individual and the role of law. Contributions presented here discuss concepts including Sharia law, freedom in the community and Libertarian Anarchism. Readers may follow accounts of justice in the Scottish Enlightenment and consider fairness, social justice and the concept of injustice. The surveys presented here show different approaches and a variety of interpretations. Each contribution has its own bibliography.
Superheroes and Philosophy
"Great Caesar's Ghost!! A team of Brainiacs! Superheroes and Philosophy is Kryptonite for those supervillains who diss the heroes as lightweights! Riddle me this, Batman: How are Gotham City and Metropolis like ancient Athens and modern Paris? Read this sensational book and find out!"
Maat Revealed Philosophy of Justice in Ancient Egypt
Categories: Egyptology, philosophy of law, history of religions Unlike ancient Rome, Egypt did not transmit any legal system to us, but rather an idea of justice our modern minds can hardly understand. In the ancient Egyptian world, almost all the texts and inscriptions speak of justice. All the texts of wisdom teach that one has to conform to Maat, an obscure and omnipresent concept that Egyptologists have translated into the expression "Goddess of Truth and Justice." Egyptian justice is so different from ours that Egyptologists and historians of religions believe they have not yet fully understood its meaning. They regret this fact because understanding Maat would be a gateway to a deeper understanding of the ancient Egyptian world. As for lawyers, they have limited themselves to the Greco-Roman sources on the philosophy of Justice and the discoveries of Egyptologists in this philosophical field remain thoroughly ignored. Thanks to her experience in ancient history of law and her ability to understand ancient symbols, the author provides Egyptology with the missing pieces that were needed to form a coherent image of Maat. Once revealed, Maat sheds a new and unexpected light on the whole of Egyptian civilization. As a bridge between traditionally separate fields of academic research, this book is a useful and groundbreaking contribution to Egyptology, the history of religions and the modern philosophy of law.
The Modernist postmodernist Quarrel on Philosophy and Justice
This book examines the social relevance of philosophy as this problem is posed in the contemporary Modernism-Postmodernism debate. Manuel P. Arriaga critically investigates the two sides of the debate in their various presuppositions and their equally diverse ramifications in fields ranging from political theory, philosophy of religion, and theory of knowledge, among others. Making use of the problematic of social justice as touchstone in threshing out the issue and aided particularly by the thought of Emmanuel Levinas, Arriaga then presents a view of the social relevance of philosophy that incorporates the good points of the opposing camps of the debate. The Modernist-Postmodernist Quarrel on Philosophy and Justice will interest anyone wishing to ask about the social relevance of what philosophers do.
What is fair? How and when can punishment be legitimate? Is there recompense for human suffering? How can we understand ideas about immortality or an afterlife in the context of critical thinking on the human condition? In this book L.E. Goodman presents a general theory of justice that makes systematic use of the Jewish sources and brings them into a philosophical dialogue with the leading ethical and political texts of the Western tradition.
A Philosophy of Evidence Law
This book examines the legal and moral theory behind the law of evidence and proof, arguing that only by exploring the nature of responsibility in fact-finding can the role and purpose of much of the law be fully understood. Ho argues that the court must not only find the truth to do justice, it must do justice in finding the truth.
Written by a group of distinguished philosophers, the Foundations of Philosophy Series aims to exhibit some of the main problems in the various fields of philosophy at the present stage of philosophical inquiry. This book is written from the viewpoint that although justice is the most important concept in political philosophy, it is also one of the most contested concepts in philosophy. Coverage begins with an overview of the concept of justice, arguing that justice is a vital part of political philosophy, which in turn is part of moral philosophy. The book outlines an objectivist view of moral philosophy, which holds that moral principles have universal validity. The material presents a philosophical map to navigate the plethora of confusing, competing theories and concepts regarding the importance of justice. The author distinguishes between formal and material concepts of justice and discusses the related issues of comparative/noncomparative justice and distributive versus commutative justice.
Is killing sometimes morally required? Is the free market fair? It is sometimes wrong to tell the truth? What is justice, and what does it mean? These and other questions are at the heart of Michael Sandel's Justice. Considering the role of justice in our society and our lives, he reveals how an understanding of philosophy can help to make sense of politics, religion, morality - and our own convictions. Breaking down hotly contested issues, from abortion, euthanasia and same-sex marriage, to patriotism, dissent and affirmative action, Sandel shows how the biggest questions in our civiv life can be broken down and illuminated through reasoned debate. Justice promises to take readers - of all ages and political persuasions - on an exhilarating journey to confront controversies in a fresh and enlightening way.
Jurisprudence is the prudence of jus, law's consciousness and conscience. Throughout history, when thinkers wanted to contemplate the organisation of society or the relationship between authority and the subject, they turned to law. All great philosophers, from Plato to Hobbes, Kant, Hegel, Marx and Weber had either studied the law or had a deep understanding of legal operations. But jurisprudence is also the conscience of law, the exploration of law's justice and of an ideal law or equity at the bar of which state law is always judged. Jurisprudence brings together 'is' and 'ought', the positive and the normative, law and justice. But after a long process of decay, legal theory is today characterised by cognitive and moral poverty. Jurisprudence has become restricted and academically peripheral, a guidebook to technocratic legalism and a legitimation of the existent. Critical jurisprudence returns to the classical tradition of a general philosophy of law and adopts a much wider concept of legality. It is concerned both with posited law and with the law of the law. All legal aspects of the economic, political, emotional and physical modes of production and reproduction of society are part of critical jurisprudence. This widening of scope allows a radical rethinking of the nature of rights, justice, sovereignty and judgement. A political philosophy of justice today must examine the political economy of law; transitions from Empire to nation; ideological and imaginary constructions through which we understand ourselves and relate to others; ways in which gender, race or sexuality create forms of identity that both discipline bodies and offer sites of resistance. Law's complicity with political oppression, violence and racism has to be faced before it is possible to speak of a new beginning for legal thought, which in turn is the necessary precondition for a theory of justice. Critical Jurisprudence offers an ethics of law against the nihilism of power and an aesthetics of existence for the melancholic lawyer.
Ancient Egyptian Wisdom for the Internet
As cyberspace and real space function differently, they cannot implicate the same legal values. The most elementary wisdom invites us to forget our legal past, so obviously ill-adapted to the Internet, so as to gain a better insight into the functioning of virtual space. Attempts to regulate the Internet in the same way as the real world have inevitably failed and will continue to fail. The only solution that can foster the expansion of the net and justify state intervention will come from a philosophy of law suited to virtuality. Our philosophical legal traditions stemmed from agricultural and industrial roots and are therefore widely useless within the virtual context. They cannot help us- but the philosophy of ancient civilizations can. At first sight, it may seem paradoxical to look to ancient civilizations for counsels on legal regulation of the Internet. But the virtual world is not a modern invention, it has existed forever. Ancient Egyptian Wisdom for the Internet demonstrates that the legal philosophy and knowledge of ancient civilizations are of great value in helping us deal with the Internet. Through a challenging exploration of ancient legal knowledge this book offers new perspective on how to deal with, and best profit from the Internet.