La transmission en jeu
" Dans l'horlogerie suisse, la tradition, c'est le savoir-faire ", m'avait fait remarquer un horloger sur un stand de la Foire professionnelle de Bâle. " Seulement, avait-il poursuivi, ce savoir est secret. C'est notre arme la plus efficace pour nous différencier des concurrents. Vous, l'anthropologue, vous n'y aurez pas accès ! " J'ai eu beau multiplier les prises de contact et les tentatives de rencontre avec les acteurs de la branche, il est vrai que, partout, je me suis cogné au secret et à ses multiples manifestations : silences, rétention d'informations, clauses de confidentialité, propriété intellectuelle, restriction d'accès, exclusivité... À force de persévérance, je suis finalement parvenu à mener un travail d'immersion de quatre années dans ce monde. Situé à la croisée de l'anthropologie des savoirs, des techniques et du patrimoine, le présent ouvrage propose une analyse complète de l'industrie horlogère helvétique en restituant le point de vue des gens qui la vivent au quotidien et en faisant apparaître une des tensions qui l'anime actuellement. Alors qu'il n'a jamais autant été question de transmission du savoir-faire et de patrimoine, nombreux sont les horlogers qui s'inquiètent pour la passation de leur métier et de ses spécificités dont ils craignent la perte inéluctable. Posant un regard sur l'actualité et l'histoire récente de cette industrie, ce livre est une invitation à comprendre ce qui a progressivement façonné un tel état de fait.
This study opens a new portal into the history of globalisation by examining several large-scale projects that, at the beginning of the twentieth century, shared a grand yet unachievable goal: bringing order to the world. Drawing from a broad array of archival materials, the book reveals how expanding commercial relations, growing international scientific agreements, and an imperial monopolisation of the political realm spawned ambitious global projects.
Industrial Development Technology Transfer and Global Competition
The phenomena of Japan emerging as one of the most competitive industrial nations in the twentieth century and the general shift of competitiveness to East Asia since the 1980s have been widely studied by many scholars from different fields of the social sciences. Drawing on sources from Japanese, Swiss, and American archives, the historical analysis of this book tackles a wide range of actors and sheds light on the various processes that enabled Japanese watch companies to transfer technology and expand commercially starting in the second half of the nineteenth century. By exploring the case of the watch industry, this book serves to establish a better understanding of the origins of the competitiveness of Japanese manufacturing and its evolution until its decline in the post?bubble economy (in the 1990s and 2000s).
Organizing Global Technology Flows
Research on the international transfer of technology in economics and management literature has primarily focused on the role of countries and that of companies, in particular multinational enterprises (MNEs). Similarly, economic and business historians have tended to view international technology transfer as a way for economically ‘backward’ countries to acquire new technologies in order to catch up with more developed economies. This volume provides a more in-depth understanding of how the international transfer of technologies is organized and, in particular, challenges the core-periphery model that is still dominant in the extant literature. By looking beyond national systems of innovation, and statistics on foreign trade, patent registration and foreign direct investment, the book sheds more light on the variety of actors involved in the transfer process (including engineers, entrepreneurs, governments, public bodies, firms, etc.) and on how they make use of a broad set of national and international institutions facilitating technology transfer. Put differently, the volume offers a better understanding of the complexity of global technology flows by examining the role and actions of the different actors involved. By bringing together a number of original case studies covering many different countries over the period from the late 19th to the 21st century, the book demonstrates how technology is being transferred through complex processes, involving a variety of actors from several countries using the national and international institutional frameworks.
Science in the Twentieth Century
With over forty chapters, written by leading scholars, this comprehensive volume represents the best work in America, Europe, and Asia. Geographical diversity of the authors is reflected in the different perspectives devoted to the subject, and all major disciplinary developments are covered. There are also sections concerning the countries that have made the most significant contributions, the relationship between science and industry, the importance of instrumentation, and the cultural influence of scientific modes of thought. Students and professionals will come to appreciate how, and why, science has developed - as with any other human activity, it is subject to the dynamics of society and politics.
Mobility in History
Since 2003 the International Association for the History of Traffic, Transport and Mobility (T2M) has served as a trade-free zone, fostering a new interdisciplinary vitality in the now-flourishing study of the History of Mobility. In its Yearbook, "Mobility in History," T2M surveys these developments in the form of a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of research in the field, presenting synopses of recent research, international reviews of research across many countries, thematic reviews, and retrospective assessments of classic works in the area. "Mobility in History" provides an essential and comprehensive overview of the current situation of Mobility studies.
Competitive Advantage on the Shop Floor
William Lazonick explores how technological change has interacted with the organization of work, with major consequences for national competitiveness and industrial leadership. Looking at Britain, the United States, and Japan from the nineteenth century to the present, he explains changes in their status as industrial superpowers. Lazonick stresses the importance for industrial leadership of cooperative relations between employers and shop-floor workers. Such relations permit employers to use new technologies to their maximum potential, which in turn transforms the high fixed costs inherent in these technologies into low unit costs and large market shares. Cooperative relations can also lead employers to invest in the skills of workers themselves--skills that enable shop-floor workers to influence quality as well as quantity of production. To build cooperative shop-floor relations, successful employers have been willing to pay workers higher wages than they could have secured elsewhere in the economy. They have also been willing to offer workers long-term employment security. These policies, Lazonick argues, have not come at the expense of profits but rather have been a precondition for making profits. Focusing particularly on the role of labor-management relations in fostering "flexible mass production" in Japan since the 1950s, Lazonick criticizes those economists and politicians who, in the face of the Japanese challenge, would rely on free markets alone to restore the international competitiveness of industry in Britain and the United States.
Eugene Morel (1869-1934) was a French Librarian who, along the lines of such eminent public library pioneers as Edward Edwards and Melvil Dewey, made a remarkable contribution towards the development of public librarianship in France. Morel was genuinely interested in all facets of librarianship and played a dominant role in molding the development of most of them. His writings on the profession made a fitting testimony to the life's work of a very active library pioneer. His relationship with the British and American Library Associations helped to bring closer the French professional association to both of them. Morel had an "avant-garde" view on the automation of libraries and was the first to encourage the employment of women in French libraries. This book is the first biography of Eugene Morel to appear in the English language.
The Watch Book Rolex
No doubt about it, Rolex is a chronometric legend. The company was founded in 1905 by Hans Wilsdorf, a Bavarian marketing genius who focused on innovation. Watch enthusiasts have Wilsdorf to thank for many outstanding models and technical advances, including the first officially-certified wristwatches, the waterproof Oyster housing, the Datejust, and sports watches like the Submariner diver's watch, which dates back more than fifty years. Although this book gives the company's incredible tradition its due, it also devotes ample space to the present. Crafted in-house to exacting specifications, Rolex's breadth of timepieces combine the utmost in sophisticated luxury with advanced precision. All this and much more is yours to enjoy in the third volume of the successful The Watch Book series.
Transnational companies 19th 20th centuries
Transnational Companies (19th-20th centuries) gathers tests which were presented during the fourth convention of the European Business History Association in Bordeaux in September 2000. Most of them come from matured and well-known business historians or business schools specialists, but a bunch of texts were provided too by junior researchers, who found thus a way to promote their brand new inquiries ! Most branches are studied here, either heavy industries or agrobusiness and textile ; but specific areas are well approached : luxury firms, wine and beverages companies, for instance. The focus of Transnational Companies is to scrutinize the emergence of international policies among enterprises, whether through exports strategies or through direct investments in foreign countries, along branches, ways of development, entrepreneurial undertakings or competition's incentives. The book assesses too the move from internationalisation to transnationalisation in the interwar and mostly since the 1960s : owing to several case studies here presented, business schools and economic historians will be able to foster tuitions and seminars with fresh material. Lest several papers are earmarked to the argument about globalisation, that is the restructuring of firms'organisation towards internationalised internal divisions since the 1970s-1980s, as the book does cover the very last years of the 20th century.