Weapons and International Law
The Larcier Law Annotated series is a collection of texts, each concerning a specific topic. The purpose of the series is to provide readers with an in-depth overview of particular legal issues. This Law Annotated volume on the Arms Trade Treaty (ATT) is a detailed assessment of the negotiation, content, and implementation of the Treaty. The ATT, which entered into force on 24 December 2014, is focused on the regulation of the international trade in conventional arms and the prevention of unlawful uses of such arms as well as the illicit trade and its diversion. The purpose of this publication is to provide a comprehensive commentary to guide officials, diplomats, academics and others in the implementation of the Treaty. This volume provides a systematic analysis of each article of the Treaty drawing on the negotiating history, providing analysis of the obligations and setting out implementation issues. The book describes the object and purpose of the Treaty, what are the conventional arms, ammunition/munitions and parts and components that are subject to its provisions, the prohibitions and other obligations of States Parties related to imports, exports, transit, trans-shipment, and brokering activities within their jurisdiction. Also addressed are the enforcement and other measures required by the Treaty, and the procedures for international cooperation and assistance.
The Arms Trade and International Law
Shortlisted for the 2008 Young Authors Inner Temple Book Prize There are believed to be about 700 million small arms and light weapons (SALW) in the world, often contributing to highly destabilising security and other concerns in international law. SALW are the primary source of violations and abuses of humanitarian and human rights principles by states, rebels, terrorists and criminals. Many consider them the real weapons of mass destruction of our time, causing about half a million deaths annually. The unrestricted international transfer of SALW by states (99 states and 1000 companies involved in manufacturing and supply) is one of the major contributory and aggravating factors of this crisis; another is the illicit traffic in small arms. This book deals with the proliferation of SALW and their unregulated trade and transfer across borders. It addresses questions of definition, manufacturing, trade/transfer, and issues relating to state responsibility. The primary focus is on conventional small arms, in particular military-style weapons. The book tackles the core and most divisive legal problem of whether or not the laws relating to arms control and relevant norms of international law provide substantive restrictions upon the transfer of small arms by states. The application of the norms of international peace and security, non-intervention, humanitarian and human rights laws, and evolved relevant customary rules of arms control relating to these norms are considered particularly carefully. Questions of application and enforcement of relevant rules and institutional responses to the problem are also examined. The UN began considering an arms trade treaty in 2006; the publication of the book at this critical moment in time will make a positive contribution towards shaping the debate and aims to further enhance understanding in an area where close analysis is required.
The Arms Trade Treaty A Commentary
The United Nations Arms Trade Treaty became binding international law in late 2014, and although the text of the treaty is a relatively concise framework for assessing whether to authorize or deny proposed conventional weapons transfers by States Parties, there exists controversy as to the meaning of certain key provisions. Furthermore, the treaty requires a national regulatory body to authorize proposed transfers of conventional weapons covered by the treaty, but does not detail how such a body should be established and how it should effectively function. The Arms Trade Treaty: A Commentary explains in detail each of the treaty provisions, the parameters for prohibitions or the denial of transfers, international cooperation and assistance, and implementation obligations and mechanisms. As states ratify and implement the Treaty over the next few years, the commentary provides invaluable guidance to government officials, commentators, and scholars on the meaning of its contentious provisions. This volume describes in detail which weapons are covered by the treaty and explains the different forms of transfer that the Arms Trade Treaty regulates. It covers international human rights, trade, disarmament, humanitarian law, criminal law, and state-to-state use of force, as well as the application of the treaty to non-state actors.
Weapons under International Human Rights Law
International human rights law offers an overarching international legal framework to help determine the legality of the use of any weapon, as well as its lawful supply. It governs acts of States and non-State actors alike. In doing so, human rights law embraces international humanitarian law regulation of the use of weapons in armed conflict and disarmament law, as well as international criminal justice standards. In situations of law enforcement (such as counterpiracy, prisons, ordinary policing, riot control, and many peace operations), human rights law is the primary legal frame of reference above domestic criminal law. This important and timely book draws on all aspects of international weapons law and proposes a new view on international law governing weapons. Also included is a specific discussion on armed drones and cyberattacks, two highly topical issues in international law and international relations.
The Practice of Shared Responsibility in International Law
This is the third book in the series Shared Responsibility in International Law, which examines the problem of distribution of responsibilities among multiple states and other actors. In its work on the responsibility of states and international organisations, the International Law Commission recognised that attribution of acts to one actor does not exclude possible attribution of the same act to another state or organisation. Recognising that the applicable rules and procedures for shared responsibility may differ between particular issue areas, this volume reviews the practice of states, international organisations, courts and other bodies that have dealt with the issue of international responsibility of multiple wrongdoing actors in a wide range of issue areas, including energy, extradition, investment law, NATO-led operations and fisheries. These analyses jointly assess the fit of the prevailing principles of international responsibility and provide a basis for reform and further development of international law.
Africa and an arms trade treaty
This paper discusses the preliminary perceptions and understandings of African countries on an arms trade treaty (ATT). Pursuant to the General Assembly Resolution 61/89, "Towards an arms trade treaty: establishing common international standards for the import, export and transfer of conventional weapons", adopted in December 2006, a group of 28 governmental experts were appointed by the United Nations Secretary General to assess the feasibility, scope and parameters of a possible ATT. Experts from five African countries, namely South Africa, Egypt, Nigeria, Algeria and Kenya, took part in the study. These countries' perceptions and understandings of an ATT will be discussed and analysed with the aim of highlighting the reservations and uncertainties that have been raised. The possible reasons for these reservations will also be discussed.
The Irish Yearbook of International Law
The Irish Yearbook of International Law (IYIL) supports research into Ireland's practice in international affairs and foreign policy, filling a gap in existing legal scholarship and assisting in the dissemination of Irish thinking and practice on matters of international law. On an annual basis, the Yearbook presents peer-reviewed academic articles and book reviews on general issues of international law. Designated correspondents provide reports on international law developments in Ireland, Irish practice in international bodies, Ireland and the Law of the Sea and the law of the European Union as relevant to developments in Ireland. In addition, the Yearbook reproduces key documents that reflect Irish practice on contemporary issues of international law. Publication of The Irish Yearbook of International Law makes Irish practice and opinio juris more readily available to governments, academics and international bodies when determining the content of international law. In providing a forum for the documentation and analysis of North-South relations the Yearbook also makes an important contribution to post-conflict and transitional justice studies internationally. As a matter of editorial policy, the Yearbook seeks to promote a multilateral approach to international affairs, reflecting and reinforcing Ireland's long-standing commitment to multilateralism as a core element of foreign policy. The ninth volume of The Irish Yearbook of International Law engages with contemporary issues in international law, raising questions both as to the conceptual underpinnings of international law in relation to the Responsibility to Protect doctrine, and state practice in fields such as Law of the Sea and belligerent occupation, prosecution of war crimes in domestic courts, and the evolving field of international disability law.
Disarmament under International Law
Russia’s annexation of Crimea and involvement in the conflict in eastern Ukraine has in many respects set back post-Cold War improved relations between Russia, the United States, and Europe. The continued war in Syria threatens the security and stability of many countries in the Middle East and attacks by ISIS and other terrorist organizations are causing increased fear and instability in Iraq and in neighbouring countries. In many areas negotiations on disarmament and arms control are at a standstill. In Disarmament under International Law, John Kierulf examines and discusses how disarmament, arms control, and non-proliferation of both conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction are regulated in existing treaties and conventions. From his perspective as a former disarmament negotiator, Kierulf explains the United Nations’ disarmament machinery and procedures, and describes the UN’s essential role in promoting disarmament. Underlining the continued and serious threat posed by nuclear weapons, Kierulf appeals for increased and effective international efforts to reduce their number and ultimately eliminate them. Presenting information and analysis on a comprehensive range of issues, Disarmament under International Law is an essential guide for anyone interested in gaining knowledge about the current state of international security.
The Law of Armed Conflict and the Use of Force
This volume brings together articles on the law of armed conflict and the use of force from the Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, the definitive reference work on international law. It provides an invaluable resources for scholars, students, and practitioners of international humanitarian law, giving an accessible, thorough overview of all aspects of the field. Each article contains cross-references to related articles, and includes a carefully selected bibliography of the most important writings and primary materials as a guide to further reading. The Encyclopedia can be used by a wide range of readers. Experienced scholars and practitioners will find a wealth of information on areas that they do not already know well as well as in-depth treatments on every aspect of their specialist topics. Articles can also be set as readings for students on taught courses.
Routledge Handbook of Transnational Criminal Law
Certain types of crime are increasingly being perpetrated across national borders and require a unified regional or global response to combat them. Transnational criminal law covers both the international treaty obligations which require States to introduce specific substantive measures into their domestic criminal law schemes, and an allied procedural dimension concerned with the articulation of inter-state cooperation in pursuit of the alleged transnational criminal. The Routledge Handbook of Transnational Criminal Law provides a comprehensive overview of the system which is designed to regulate cross border crime. The book looks at the history and development of the system, asking questions as to the principal purpose and effectiveness of transnational criminal law as it currently stands. The book brings together experts in the field, both scholars and practitioners, in order to offer original and forward-looking analyses of the key elements of the transnational criminal law. The book is split into several parts for ease of reference: Fundamental concepts surrounding the international regulation of transnational crime. Procedures for international cooperation against alleged transnational criminals including jurisdiction, police cooperation, asset recovery and extradition. Substantive crimes covered by transnational criminal law analysing the current legal provisions for each crime. The implementation of transnational criminal law and the effectiveness of the system of transnational criminal law. With chapters from over 25 authorities in the field, this handbook will be an invaluable reference work for student and academics and for policy makers with an interest in transnational criminal law.