Fifty Years of the International Court of Justice
To mark the fiftieth anniversary of the International Court of Justice, a distinguished group of international judges, practitioners and academics has undertaken a major review of its work. The chapters discuss the main areas of substantive law with which the Court has been concerned, and the more significant aspects of its practice and procedure in dealing with cases before it. It discusses the role of the Court in the international legal order, and its relationship with the UN's political organs. The thirty-three chapters are presented under five headings: the Court; the sources and evidences of international law; substance of international law; procedural aspects of the Court's work; the Court and the UN. It has been prepared in honour of Sir Robert Jennings, judge and sometime President of the Court.
Navigating Choppy Waters
China faces increasing economic headwinds that call into question not only its near-term growth outlook but the longer-term sustainability of its economic success. At a time of leadership transition in Beijing, global markets and policymakers alike are casting an anxious eye on China’s economic decisionmakers and wondering whether they have the plans, skills, and fortitude to cope with these challenges. There is a rising premium on understanding how Chinese economic policy decisions are made, whether the emerging cadre of policymakers has the wherewithal to navigate the more turbulent waters ahead, and what the implications are for U.S. foreign and economic policy.
The Prevention of Cancer
Epidemiological studies show that cancer incidence is far more dependent on the conditions of life than previously supposed. Classically, cancers occurred with heavy exposure to a specific occupational hazard, or were associated with habits. In some instances, research shows, the incidence of cancer falls when the method of work or the associated habit is changed. In short, variation in incidence is now known to be the rule rather than the exception in cancer. No cancer that occurs with even moderate frequency, occurs everywhere and always to the same extent. Sometimes it is even epidemic, similar in scale to an epidemic of infectious disease, but modified by the fact that the induction period may be as much as thirty years. Prevention of cancer is now coming to be regarded as a practicable alternative to its cure. We remain almost totally ignorant of how cancer is produced at the cellular level and, until we know this, our methods of prevention are liable to be cumbersome and inefficient. Ethical considerations and the time scale of the disease make it impossible to obtain experimental evidence in man and what action to take has been determined from observing nature's experiments and by analogy from experiments in animals. The evidence from epidemiological studies is of particular interest. Such studies suggest relationships that would never be thought of in the ordinary course of laboratory work and results that are directly relevant to the problems of human disease. The large numbers at risk and the intensity of the medical care to which people with cancer are subjected, make it possible to recognize relatively small improvements. Such practical decisions, based on information thus obtained, have largely eliminated the risk of cancer due to occupational hazards in several industries. Richard Doll (1912-2005) was a British psychologist and one of the most prominent epidemiologists of the twentieth century. Throughout out his research he was able to link smoking with health problems and was the first individual to link smoking with lung cancer and increased risk of heart disease. He also studies the relationship between asbestos and lung cancer and radiation and leukemia. He is the author of many books, including The Causes of Cancer: Quantitative Estimates of Avoidable Risks of Cancer in the United States Today and Tobacco and Health.
Equity Also the Forms of Action at Common Law
Frederic William Maitland A été écrit sous une forme ou une autre pendant la plus grande partie de sa vie. Vous pouvez trouver autant d'inspiration de Equity Also the Forms of Action at Common Law Aussi informatif et amusant. Cliquez sur le bouton TÉLÉCHARGER ou Lire en ligne pour obtenir gratuitement le livre de titre $ gratuitement.
European Banking and Financial Law
In recent decades, the volume of EU legislation on financial law has increased exponentially. Banks, insurers, pension funds, investment firms and other financial institutions all are increasingly subject to European regulatory rules, as are day to day financial transactions. Serving as a comprehensive and authoritative introduction to European banking and financial law, the book is organized around the three economic themes that are central to the financial industry: (i) financial markets; (ii) financial institutions; and (iii) financial transactions. It covers not only regulatory law, but also commercial law that is relevant for the most important financial transactions. It also explains the most important international standard contracts such as LMA loan contracts and the GMRA repurchase agreements. Covering a broad range of aspects of financial law from a European perspective, it is essential reading for students of financial law and European regulation.
La libert de prendre des risques
La réflexion juridique actuelle à propos de la liberté de prendre des risques semble être partout et nulle part à la fois. Partout car beaucoup des grands débats juridiques de notre temps, ceux relatifs au principe de précaution, au fonctionnement des marchés financiers ou à la portée de l'acceptation des risques dans le contrat et la responsabilité, portent en définitive sur la nécessaire conciliation à établir entre la liberté de prendre des risques et l'exigence actuelle de sécurité. Nulle part pourtant, car la liberté de prendre des risques demeure non formulée en droit. Ni le législateur, ni les juges n'emploient l'expression, ni même la doctrine. Contenue jusqu'à présent silencieusement dans les libertés personnelle, contractuelle ou d'entreprendre, elle pourrait être appelée à sortir de l'ombre à la faveur de la concentration du débat juridique autour d'elle. C'est en tout cas le sens de cette étude: donner au droit la mission de tracer le régime juridique de cette liberté, ses fondements, frontières, sanctions et récompenses, afin d'inciter aux prises de risque nécessaires à l'odre social et de dissuader celles excessives.
Negotiation Behavior is a theoretical synthesis of what is known about negotiation as a general phenomenon. The principles presented are illustrated with examples of negotiation from many specific realms. A great deal of attention is devoted to the motives, perceptions, and other microprocesses underlying the behavior of negotiators and to the results of laboratory experiments on negotiation. Comprised of seven chapters, this book begins by defining negotiation and contrasting it with other forms of multiparty decision making, along with its significance and the nature of research on the subject. Two fundamental theoretical notions are presented: the strategic choice model and the goal/expectation hypothesis. Subsequent chapters focus on where bargainers place their demands as well as the strategies they use to foster their interests while moving toward agreement. The reader is introduced to key concepts such as demand level and concession rate, competitive tactics, and coordinative behavior, together with integrative agreements and third-party intervention in negotiation (mediation and arbitration). This monograph will be of value to practitioners in the fields of organizational and occupational psychology, social psychology, economics, industrial relations, and international relations.
Patent Protection for Second Medical Uses
AIPPI Law Series Volume 2 Patent Protection for Second Medical Uses explains the key jurisdictional differences and challenges in protecting and enforcing second medical use (SMU) claims. When a party proposes an SMU for a known substance or compound, special issues of patentability arise as they form an important component of the potential second-line patent protection. Jurisdictions around the world vary significantly in their treatment of such claims. This compendium of contributions from nineteen jurisdictions worldwide is the result of the need for a broader and more detailed exposition in SMU in order to allow comparison between jurisdictions. What's in this book: The authors have been carefully selected based on their experience and in-depth knowledge about medical patents in their respective jurisdictions. Each chapter considers such issues and topics as the following: availability of protection; validity of claims; scope of protection; enforcement; and infringement and investigations of SMU claims. This book provides a detailed country-by-country analysis by focusing on specific issues and national peculiarities that deviate from the European Patent Office (EPO) practice. The analysis starts with the availability of the protection for SMU claims and the legal basis these claims are based upon, and then continues with the scope of protection and infringement of SMU claims. A general chapter about the practice of the EPO addresses in particular the latest changes in the format of SMU claims from the 'Swiss-type claims' to the 'EPC 2000 claims'. How this will help you: This book serves as a guide for filing a patent application by assessing the risks of conflict with existing patents or patent applications thereby enabling practitioners to be prepared for defending against infringement and enforcement procedures concerning SMU claims. As a comparative law study on an important and controversial field, this book is of tremendous practical interest for those involved in the industry. Applicants for pharmaceutical patents, third parties, and interested legal practitioners will benefit greatly from its thorough comparative analysis and guidance.